Why Was Simla Agreement Important 7 Marks

In the end, during the Shimla final, Gandhi evolved as a swing factor between strength and accommodating postures. The alternative of calling Bhutto`s bluff and leaving without agreement, Gandhi and Haksar were deemed too expensive after India`s dramatic triumph in 1971. The self-limitation that underpinned India`s attitude was all too noticeable to the Pakistanis. Ahmed, their negotiator, later noted that “India`s excessive fear of avoiding the failure of the talks at all costs has become its great handicap,” while it held “all the negotiating tokens.” Haksar later noted that “force negotiations” are part of the diplomatic currency. But negotiating with someone weak is even more difficult.┬áThe international and regional context after 1971 had made the realization of some kind of agreement an important political objective for Gandhi and his national security team. After a successful war that liberated Bangladesh, politicians tried to continue to submit India`s status by showing a credible attempt at peace. Of course, India`s image had to be balanced by concrete results. The most desirable outcome would have been a final resolution in Kashmir, which bypasses the de facto position administered by both sides. The evidence is that policymakers have attempted to address some of the deep roots of the Indo-Pakistani conflict in Kashmir, seen as a direct manifestation of Pakistan`s national identity and not as a normal territorial impasse between states. P.N. Haksar, Gandhi`s senior foreign policy adviser, later wrote that India`s approach was based on “the realization that Pakistan continues to have an unresolved crisis of its national identity.” 1971 paved the way for an alternative future for Pakistan. The Delhi Agreement on the Return of War and Civilian Internees is a tripartite agreement between these states, signed on 28 August 1973.

The agreement was signed by Kamal Hossain, the Foreign Minister of the Government of Bangladesh, Sardar Swaran Singh, the Indian Minister of Foreign Affairs and Aziz Ahmed, Minister of State for Defence and Foreign Affairs of the Pakistani government. [9] [10] [11] Shimla Agreement: July 2, 1972Shimla: What is it? The Shimla Agreement was signed on 2 July 1972 by Indira Gandhi, then Indian Prime Minister, and by Pakistani President Zulfikar Ali Bhutto, after the 1971 India-Pakistan War that liberated East Pakistan and led to the creation of Bangladesh. Among them, India and Pakistan have decided to abandon the conflict of the past and focus on building lasting friendship, peace and cooperation between them. The Shimla Agreement: Key Principles The Shimla Agreement contains a series of principles agreed by both India and Pakistan, which emphasize respect for sovereignty, territorial integrity, sovereign equality, non-interference in the internal affairs of the other, respect for political independence and unity of the other, and disregard for hostile propaganda. The principles of the Shimla Agreement are:- Mutual commitment to peacefully resolve all issues through direct bilateral approaches.- Build the basis of a cooperative relationship with an emphasis on contacts.- Maintain the inviolability of the line of control in Jammu and Kashmir. Shimla agreement: main features 1. India and Pakistan have decided to put an end to the conflict and confrontation that have weighed on their relations in the past and to commit to a friendly and harmonious relationship to establish lasting peace in the subcontinent. 2. Both India and Pakistan agreed that relations between the two countries were governed by the principles of the United Nations Charter.

3. The two countries have decided to settle their differences by peaceful means, bilateral means or other means which they have agreed to.