1If actors on the international scene can claim a relationship as rich and ambiguous as Israel and the European Union (EU). The EU is, along with the United States, one of Israel`s main trading partners, with a trade volume of €20.2 billion in 20092. On the geostrategic front, the two actors are increasingly cooperating actively in the face of common threats such as an Iranian nuclear power. Culturally, scientifically and commercially, the EU is often defined as an Israeli “hinterland”3 due to the regional isolation of the Israeli “hinterland”3. Their relations – since the establishment of diplomatic relations in 1959 – have proved to be profound and lasting, despite a particularly reserved geopolitical context. The various crises that affected regional stability – the 1967 Six-Day War, the October 1973 War, the Lebanon War and the two intifadas of 1987 and 2000 – have never permanently threatened the deepening of their relations. However, this does not change the fact that their recurrent political disagreement regularly shapes the turn of events. Following Israel`s Operation Cast Lead in the Gaza Strip from 27 December 2008 to 18 January 2009, the ratification of certain agreements between Israel and the EU was officially frozen, including a protocol on Israel`s participation in EU programmes, signed on 17 May 2008. Moreover, shortly after the events of the “Arab Spring” provoked by the popular uprisings in Tunisia in December 2010/January 2011, the EU and Israel are divided on their importance: the democratic movements to be promoted, according to the former; a threat that Israel says could even destabilize the Middle East and its own security. Goods from Israeli settlements in the occupied Palestinian territories are not subject to the free trade agreement, as they are not considered Israeli. The subsequent amendments to the Agreement have been inserted in the original text.
This consolidated version is only documentary. The main legal relations between Israel and the EU are defined in the 1995 Association Agreement.  Several other agreements concern sectoral issues. 14 As regards demography, different figures show the long-standing proximity between Israeli and European societies. A study by the Konrad Adenauer Foundation confirms that in 2009, 40% of Israelis were entitled to European citizenship because of their European roots27, thus facilitating their free movement. This reality is transmitted economically by the fact that 48% 200928 of Israeli multinational companies were European within the 20 largest Israeli multinationals. The exchange of common ideas and values facilitates interaction between the two actors. .